Executive Summary



Staff Contributors


A Comment on Report Methodology


Introduction & Background


Backgrounder: U.S. Energy Consumption in Context


General Insights

1. Energy Productivity

2. Energy Consumption and Emissions Reductions

3. Per Capita Primary Energy Consumption

4. Energy Efficiency Policy and Program Impacts

5. Energy Expenditures and Cost Savings

6. Energy Efficiency Federal Funding


Co-Benefits with Energy Savings

7. Energy Efficiency Jobs

8. Public Health Benefits

9. The Multiple Benefits of Weatherization

10. Addressing Energy Insecurity

11. Other High-Impact Commercial Benefits


Energy Efficiency in Utilities

12. Energy Efficiency is a Low-Cost Resource

13. Utility Programs Spending and Savings

14. Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

15. Utility Programs Spending and Savings Per Capita

16. Decoupling and Shareholder Incentives

17. Smart Meters

18. Demand Response

19. Energy Efficiency & Losses in Power Systems


Investment and Financing

20. Energy Efficiency Investments

21. Energy Service Company (ESCO) Investments

22. Green Banks



23. Energy Efficiency and Household Cost Reductions

24. Appliance Energy Efficiency Improvements

25. Policy Impact: Federal Appliance Standards

26. Market Impact: ENERGY STAR®

27. Commercial Building Energy Intensity

28. Market Impact: Efficient Lighting From 2001 To 2015

29. Growth in LED Sales After 2015

30. Building Energy Performance Benchmarking and Transparency

31. Residential Home Energy Use Rating And Certification Tools

32. Home Performance Data

33. Building Certification by ENERGY STAR® and LEED

34. Model Building Energy Codes

35. Zero Net Energy Buildings

36. Building Performance Standards

37. Smart Buildings

38. Appliance Efficiency Standards



39. Industrial Energy Intensity

40. Industrial Carbon Intensity

41. Combined Heat and Power

42. Industrial Energy Management

43. ISO 50001

44. Better Plants

45. ENERGY STAR® in Industry



46. Light-Duty Fuel Economy Standards

47. International Fuel Economy Standards And Targets

48. Medium and Heavy-Duty Modes

49. Light-Duty Electric Vehicles

50. EV Transit

51. EV Charging Infrastructure

52. Vehicle Miles Traveled

53. Utilization of Transportation Modes

54. Transit Equity Metrics


States, Cities and Countries

55. State Scorecard Rankings

56. City Scorecard Rankings

57. International Scorecard Rankings


Looking to the Future

58. Digitalization

59. Energy Efficiency Can Cut Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Half



Key Policy Opportunities

Where We Go from Here


Resources and Glossary