Executive Summary


Letter from Our Organizations

Staff Contributors


A Comment on Report Methodology

Introduction & Background


Backgrounder: U.S. Energy Consumption in Context

General Insights

1. Energy Productivity

2. Energy Consumption and Emissions Reductions

3. Per Capita Primary Energy Consumption

4. Energy Efficiency Policy and Program Impacts

5. Energy Expenditures and Cost Savings

6. Energy Efficiency Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) Funding

Co-Benefits with Energy Savings

7. Energy Efficiency Jobs

8. Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions

9. Public Health Benefits

10. Addressing the Energy Burden

11. Other High-Impact Commercial Benefits

Energy Efficiency in Utilities

12. Energy Efficiency is a Low-Cost Resource

13. Utility Programs Spending and Savings

14. Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

15. Utility Programs Spending and Savings Per Capita

16. Decoupling and Shareholder Incentives

17. Smart Meters

18. Demand Response

19. Energy Efficiency & Losses in Power Systems

Investment and Financing

20. Energy Efficiency Investments

21. Energy Service Company (ESCO) Investments

22. PACE Investments

23. Green Banks


24. Energy Efficiency and Household Cost Reductions

25. Appliance Energy Efficiency Improvements

26. Policy Impact: Federal Appliance Standards

27. Market Impact: ENERGY STAR®

28. Commercial Building Energy Intensity

29. Market Impact: Efficient Lighting From 2001 To 2015

30. Growth in LED Sales After 2015

31. Commercial Building Energy Performance Benchmarking

32. Residential Home Energy Use Rating And Certification Tools

33. Building Certification by ENERGY STAR® and LEED

34. Model Building Energy Codes

35. Zero Net Energy Buildings

36. Smart Buildings

37. Appliance Efficiency Standards


38. Industrial Energy Intensity

39. Combined Heat and Power

40. Strategic Energy Management

41. Better Plants

42. ENERGY STAR® in Industry


43. Light-Duty Fuel Economy Standards

44. International Fuel Economy Standards And Targets

45. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Modes

46. Light-Duty Electric Vehicles

47. EV Charging Infrastructure

48. Vehicle Miles Traveled and Congestion

49. Utilization of Transportation Modes

States, Cities and Countries

50. State Scorecard Rankings

51. City Scorecard Rankings

52. International Scorecard Rankings

Looking to the Future

53. Digitalization

54. Energy Efficiency Can Cut Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Half


Key Policy Opportunities

Where We Go from Here

Resources and Glossary